Equestrian statue of Boleslaw Chrobry, Wroclaw, Poland
Boleslaw the Brave duke of Poland 992 - 1025 and her first king, duke of Bohemia 1002 - 1003, son of Mieszko prince of Pollans and Doubravka princess of Bohemia, brother of Sigrid the Haughty (also known as Świętosława, Czcirada, Sigrid Storrada, Saum–Aesa, Polish Gunnhilda), queen of Sweden 980 - 995, queen of Denmark 996 - 1014, queen of Norway 1000 - 1014, queen of England 1013 - 1014 who was mother of Cnut the Great (also known as Canut the Great, Knud 2. den Store) king of Denmark, England, Norway, parts of Sweden
He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa, daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia. Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Přemyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity.
In the year 1000, the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980-1002) visited Poland to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum". Among other gifts the Polish ruler presented to Otto III were 300 armored knights, while the Emperor responded with a gift of a copy of the lance of Saint Maurice. Evidently Otto III was impressed with what he saw and he decided that Poland should be treated as a kingdom on par with Germany and Italy, not merely as a tributary duchy like Bohemia. The Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesław I's brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius. He also raised Bolesław I to the dignity of patricius or "elder of the Roman nation". Afterwards Bolesław I traveled with the Emperor to Aix-la-Chapelle where Otto III had the tomb of Charlemagne opened. From there Otto III is reputed to have removed the Imperial throne itself and presented it to the Polish Duke.
It was said that Bolesław Chrobry's pagan grandfathers had made their homeland Western Slavic territories, inhabited by the autochtonic Slavic tribes of Polanie, Slezanie and many others, so safe that a molested virgin could complain to the tribal elders and bring her offender to punishment of nailing his genitals to a wooden bridge.
After a couple of days of suffering the convict was given a sharp knife just in case he did not want to die of hunger and preferred to cut himself off from his criminal sexuality. Literally...
Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan, the largest (40 metres tall) in the world, near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Genghis Khan, Mongolian: Чингис Хаан or ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Chinggis Khaan, or Činggis Qaγan, aka Chengiz Khan) (1162–1227), was the founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions that would ultimately result in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in Khwarezmia. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code, called the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance to a large degree. Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis Khan attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women. Modern scholars refer to the alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication as the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace).
It was said that Genghis Khan had made the Silk Road between Eastern China and Europe so safe that a lone virgin could walk the entire route carrying a bag of gold on her head and no one would trouble her.